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Survey of Waste Management Industry in Bangladesh - Taking Dhaka City as an Example

Release time:2017-12-13Author:admin

Survey of Waste Management Industry in Bangladesh - Taking Dhaka City as an Example

The rubbish dump in the picture is located in Sylhet, the northeastern city of Bangladesh, where a man is walking by a truck full of rubbish

Bangladesh has a population of 167.9 million and it is in the process of rapid urbanization now. In 1995, 18.3% of the total population lived in cities;it was 26% in 2010; and by 2030 the proportion is expected to rise to 31.1%. Since 1991, the daily generated waste amount in Bangladesh has been increasing year by year. The generated waste amount in urban areas nationwide increased from 6,493 tons in 1991 to 13,330 tons in 2005, and further increased to 23,688 tons in 2014.According to projections, Bangladesh will have 78.44 million urban populations by 2025 and will generate 47,000 tons of waste per day.The increasing of generated waste amount has direct relations with the growth of urban population.

Bangladesh is a country with a large population but few lands, so looking for new landfill site has become more and more difficult for waste management authorities around the country. In 2014, 157.2 hectares of land is needed for waste disposal sites in Bangladesh per day; by 2025, the demand for land would increase to 311.91 hectares.

At present, Bangladesh has over 522 towns and cities, in Bangladesh , which are core areas of economic development and population growth in the country. In larger cities, rapid population growth has led to harsh waste management issues. A report from UNFPA pointed out that Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh, is one of the worst living conditions cities in the world. One of the main reasons is that conventional waste management methods meet the needs of cities at all.

Survey of Waste Management Industry in Bangladesh - Taking Dhaka City as an Example

The waste composition in Bangladesh

Kitchen waste and plant waste 67.65%

Metal 0.64% Waste cloth, fabric, fibrilia 2.5%

Paper 9.73%

glass and ceramics 1.13%

Medicines, chemicals 0.25%

Plastic, leather, rubber 5.10%

Wood, grass, leaves 4.20%

Stone, dust and others 8.79%

As shown in the chart, organic waste covers a significant proportion , over 70% in the waste in Bangladesh, resulting in high moisture (over 50%) and low calorific value (less than 1000kcal / kg) in the waste.

At present, the major cities in Bangladesh, the waste collection rate is 44.3% ~ 76.47%. The main treatment method of waste in this country is dumping in uncontrolled landfills. As an exception, Dhaka is the only city with sanitary landfill. In addition, there is no facility in Bangladesh for the disposal of hazardous wastes in Bangladesh.

The main problems with waste management in Bangladesh are as follows:

1、Waste is not classified, resulting in low recycling rates;

2、The non-recyclable packaging materials in the waste are accumulating;

3、Waste industry chain has too many links, there are 4~5 steps from the source to the final disposal of land usually;

4、The public lacks 3Rawareness of reduced use, reuse, and recycling;

5、Collection and disposal of waste is simple and rude;

6、Low rates of waste collection often cause water blockage problems;

7、Waste pollutes the environment, causing health hazards;

8、Demand for landfills is growing;

9、Waste management costs is rising constantly;

10、The release of Greenhouse gases.

1)Case Study of Dhaka City

Dhaka City, one of the oldest cities in South Asia, became the capital of East Bengal in 1905, then became the capital of East Pakistan after India and Pakistan were out of the control of the British;after Bangladesh was independent in 1971, Dhaka became the capital of the country, began faster and faster urban expansion. In 1991, Dhaka City had a population of 6.49 million, an increase to 9.67 million in 2001 and a figure of 14.54 million in 2011. According to the forecast, the city's population will increase to 25 million by 2025,becoming a super city with the highest population all over the world .

In 2014, World Health Organization identified Dhaka as one of the most polluted cities in the world. In the city, the rate of municipal solid waste production is rising constantly, leading to a severe crisis of management. Major factors causing stress at waste management in Dhaka City include rapid industrial development, lack of funding, lack of trained professionals, without suitable technology and lack of public awareness of waste management. Currently, between 3,000 and 4,000 tons of garbage are generated in Dhaka City per day, in which 200 tons are medical waste from hospitals and clinics containing toxic chemicals, radioactive elements and pathogens. With the development of the city, the composition of the waste is also changing. The increase of all kinds of plastic products including polyethylene in the waste not only causes hazard to the environment, but also causes the blocking of the waterway.

Survey of Waste Management Industry in Bangladesh - Taking Dhaka City as an Example

The Brignga River near Dhaka City is polluted by waste
Survey of Waste Management Industry in Bangladesh - Taking Dhaka City as an Example
Scene at Matsuail Landfill in Dhaka City after Eid al-Adha: Scavengers are picking up the wreckage and offal of the sacrificial cattle to sell to the manufacturing and feed industry

There are 7,000 waste management workers in Dhaka city, the management authority has 224 trucks and 128 closed transportation vehicles and has a land area of 72 hectares on the outskirts of the city where only simple discards of waste are possible. The private sector involvement in waste management in Dhaka started in 1986 as a door-to-door collection service, while residents were very willing to pay a very low service charge to improve their living conditions while making it easier. At present, almost all communities in Dhaka have privately-sourced on-site refuse collection services, with the exception of slum areas. However, problems have arisen with non-governmental organizations, community-based organizations and private enterprises in the transition to public authorities, resulting in neither the exchange of information nor the cooperation with each other between the private and public elements, even more, the public authorities have failed to record, let alone provide support and supervise them.

Survey of Waste Management Industry in Bangladesh - Taking Dhaka City as an Example
Landfill in Dhaka, Dhaka prefecture
Survey of Waste Management Industry in Bangladesh - Taking Dhaka City as an Example
Girl who is picking up waste in the trash (taken in Dhaka prefecture, Dhaka)

2)Waste generation in Dhaka city

In Dhaka City, the generation of waste by weight is different between the dry season and the rainy season, during the rainy season, all types of degradable waste, including organic waste, contain more moisture and therefore, weigh is more than in the dry season. In addition, there is also a significant difference in the waste amount generated by people at different income levels: per capita waste generation of highest income population is almost twice as the lowest-income population.

Waste generation status of different income levels people in Dhaka city (RMB 1 ≈ Taka 13)

Survey of Waste Management Industry in Bangladesh - Taking Dhaka City as an Example

Based on the amount of waste generated per capita in the above table, a total of 5,728,000 residents in the statistical area will produce 1,945 tons of garbage per day. Commercial and office facilities in Dhaka City are estimated to generate 1,035 tons of rubbish per day, while street sweeping produces 200 tons of rubbish per day. In addition, there are thousands of homeless people who live in slums and the amount of waste generated cannot be counted. Based on the above data, it can be conservatively estimated that Dhaka City will produce at least 3,200 tons of waste per day. Due to the rapid growth of urban population, the output will surely increase rapidly with the increase of population. According to other estimates, Dhaka has now generated more than 5,000 tons of waste per day.

3)Waste composition in Dhaka City

As a mega-city in a developing country, Dhaka City is in the tropics, therefore, the waste containing a large amount of organic components will be heavier than the dry season by absorbing moisture in the rainy season, and the weight ratio will increase from 66% in the dry season to 68% in the rainy season. Garbage, paper, wood, glass together these components, the proportion occupy the total waste accounted for more than 80% throughout the year.

Waste composition in Dhaka City

Survey of Waste Management Industry in Bangladesh - Taking Dhaka City as an Example

4)Waste collection

In the Dhaka city ,the collection is divided into the initial and second time .Municipality is in charge of the second waste collection ,collection and transportation the waste that has been taken to the designated place, then send to the final disposition place .Generally speaking ,the citizens should send the waste to the designated place ,but since 1980s ,some non-government organization and community organization start to offer collection transportation service.

Survey of Waste Management Industry in Bangladesh - Taking Dhaka City as an Example

Dhaka City waste collection and transportation system diagram

The initial time waste collection is a labor intensive work, the government and community organization usually hire labor by tricycle to do this work. After this, the labor transport the waste to the municipality appointed dustbin. However, in low-income communities and slums, residents often dump waste into nearby open areas due to lack of bins. For different income groups, non-governmental organizations and community organizations, collection and delivery costs vary.

Waste collection transportation marketize price in Dhaka(1 RMB ≈ 13Taka)

Survey of Waste Management Industry in Bangladesh - Taking Dhaka City as an Example
Survey of Waste Management Industry in Bangladesh - Taking Dhaka City as an Example

Workers are collecting waste in Dhaka

According to estimates by the Dhaka municipal authorities, the whole city produces 3,500 tons of rubbish per day, of which 1,800 tons will be collected by the authorities and transported to the landfill.900 tons are land filled on landfills in various locations, including the backyard; 400 tons are dumped to curbside or other open spaces; 300 tons are recycled by pickers (mostly slum dwellers); 100 tonsrecycled on the spot by producers. In other words, nearly half of the waste in the entire city is not collected by municipalities and therefore can not be disposed of at landfills operated by the government. In the municipal expenditures, only 14-17% is spent on solid waste management, which equals to only 3.3 RMB per resident per year for waste treatment. Due to insufficient management budget, a large amount of wastes cannot be formally disposed. Instead, discarded locally in the community, or entering waterways, lakes or reservoirs, or disposed of by informal means. Uncollected waste causes a number of environmental problems, including scattered litter, pungent smells, blocked sewers, contaminated water bodies and breeding mosquitoes. In a word, Dhaka waste collection and transportation status is not optimistic.

Survey of Waste Management Industry in Bangladesh - Taking Dhaka City as an Example

An open bins release bursts of peculiar smell, so that pedestrians hold their noses

Survey of Waste Management Industry in Bangladesh - Taking Dhaka City as an Example

Vehicles used for initial collection and delivery in Dhaka City

Survey of Waste Management Industry in Bangladesh - Taking Dhaka City as an Example

Vehicles used for Second collection and delivery in Dhaka City

5)Waste disposition

Dhaka city authorities expanded the Matuail landfill to a sanitary landfill, it also has a leachate collection and treatment system and a sewage treatment system to handle the leachate discharged from the landfill, also a gas discharge system is adopted..For the purpose of keeping work in line with modern standards, the landfills are also equipped with scales, car washing facilities, waste compression equipment, and monitoring equipment. At the same time, the municipality has also created the Amin Bazar landfill and closed the Berri Band landfill. Although the above achievements have been made in disposal, Dhaka still confronted with the problem of insufficient disposal capacity.

Survey of Waste Management Industry in Bangladesh - Taking Dhaka City as an Example

Matuaillandfill(left)and Amin Bazarlandfill(Right)

Of the waste generated in Dhaka city, 69-77% can be used for compost. Because municipal waste contains large quantities of organic components, it must be cleared on time, but it also means there is a high potential for recycling of organic waste. Residents can play a very important role in recycling, by separating recyclable materials (such as plastics and paper) from organic waste at the source. Through such source separation method to ensure the cleanness and quality of recycled materials, thus increase the recycling practitioners income. In Dhaka City, the daily total amount of recycled waste in the recycling industry is about 436 tons.

Recycling in Dhaka City

Survey of Waste Management Industry in Bangladesh - Taking Dhaka City as an Example

*When collect data, also calculate it including recycling of metals shipped from the outside of the city,therefore, the recycling rate is higher than generated amount of metal wastes.

Although compostable materials make up a large percentage of total waste, the composting capacity in Dhaka City is low. Currently, about 6% of the city's workforce is engaged in various types of recycling: Scavengers pick up recyclable materials from the trash cans and sell them to hawkers who collect the waste. Then the waste is bought by wholesalers, and sold to various factories as raw materials after cleaning. Those persons who works on garbage collection also sell collected recyclable materials to hawkers.

The above is Survey of Waste Management Industry in Bangladesh - Taking Dhaka City as an Example,more relevant knowledge,such as price,daily output can be free online consultation,Our account manager will answer your questions online in real time.

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